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Treat "cancer" with "immunotherapy"

by pandara66 » Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:47 am


What is the first picture you see when you think of the word “cancer”? Pain, torture, or death Each year, cancer is a disease that takes many lives. Data from the World Health Organization in 2018 reported that around the world there are 9.6 million deaths from cancer, moving a little closer. 122,757 new cases of illness, and the สล็อต trend continues to increase. Which cancer does not affect the patient only But also affect the family and society around In terms of physical, mental, relationship, economic and quality of life.

As a result, both patients and healthcare professionals are making the best efforts to fight cancer. But many times the results of treatment Did not meet expectations This further reinforces the belief that it is deeply rooted in Thai society that cancer is incurable, incurable, is equal to death.

But the truth may not be like that.

With advances in medical technology and a strong commitment to research into new cancer treatments. Causing the discovery of a new treatment for cancer called "Immunotherapy"

What is immunotherapy?
Associate Professor Ekaphop Sirachainan, Head of Oncology Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital explains that “Immunotherapy or Immunotherapy. Is to use the body's immune system to fight cancer Our bodies normally have white blood cells, the main function of the immune system, which manages foreign bodies in the body. The white blood cells that play the main function of the cancer immune system are called T-cell leukocytes. Cancer cells are those that are mutated and are considered foreign bodies in the body as well. But cancer cells have the ability to evade immunity. Cause eventually cancer Later, a mechanism by which cancer cells evade immunity was discovered. Thus making it possible to find a way to bring immunity to be used as a new way of treating cancer. "

What makes immunotherapy different from other cancer treatments is that it does not directly destroy cancer cells. But stimulate the immune system To destroy cancer cells again While receiving chemotherapy Or drugs that target directly destroy cancer cells There are three main types of immunotherapy: antibodies, therapeutic cells, and cancer vaccines. But here I will talk about the antibody-type immunotherapy that inhibits Checkpoint or Checkpoint Inhibitor.

What is a checkpoint?
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Checkpoints are normal mechanisms of body cells. It has the function of preventing excessive immune stimulation. On the surface of the checkpoint, cancer cells and white blood cells keep them together. It acts like a lock and a key that locks the white blood cells from destroying cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors, an antibody class of drugs, work to keep the lock and padlock from getting caught. And allows white blood cells to get rid of cancer cells Some of the checkpoint inhibitors available in Thailand are CTLA-4 inhibitors, PD-1 inhibitors (PD-1) and PDL-1 inhibitors (PD). -L1)

Checkpoint inhibitors have been researched for efficacy and have been approved for the treatment of many cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer. Melanoma skin cancer Bladder cancer And triple negative breast cancer, etc. However, checkpoint inhibitors cannot be used to treat all types of cancer. Because the indications for the treatment of each cancer depend on the stage of the disease. And the nature of the disease Patients can seek advice from a medical professional.

The use of checkpoint inhibitors can also have side effects. There may be inflammation of the organs, which is characterized by immune stimulation. The organs that are commonly exposed to inflammation are skin, may have a rash or itching, bowel, abdominal pain, lung pain, fatigue, cough, liver, abnormal blood values Yellow body, yellow eyes And endocrine systems such as pituitary and thyroid Have abnormal hormonal deficiency or excess symptoms But most symptoms are mild to moderate. And can be modified These inflammation symptoms can occur at any time. Probably at the beginning of the drug administration Or after stopping the drug But most will occur within a week to a few months.

For the treatment of side effects It can be divided into 3 levels according to the severity of symptoms. In patients whose side effects were either grade 1 (mild) or grade 2 (intermediate), symptomatic treatment was most commonly used. And there is no need to stop the checkpoint inhibitor Patients whose adverse reactions were of severity in grade 2 had continued symptoms. It may be necessary to stop the drug and treat symptoms until it improves. The treatment at the last level It is a treatment for patients with severe side effects of either Grade 3 (Severe) or Grade 4 (Severe), the drug must be stopped immediately. And may need a specialist to evaluate the treatment In some cases, oral or injectable steroids may be needed. Or immunosuppressants to treat side effects temporarily

Immunotherapy is an exciting new treatment option for cancer. It brings what exists in our body to fight disease. Utilize the strengths of the immune system to directly destroy cancer cells. And increase the effectiveness of treatment And it may be a new hope for cancer patients. However, cancer is a disease with symptoms.
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